"They don't look at it as crime, they look at it as business," he said. "It's not about them getting their act together. From their point of view, they have their act together."
"In the current geopolitical environment, it seems really unlikely that the Russian and Chinese governments will be willing to cooperate on cybercrime investigations where the primary suspect is in China or Russia," said Levi Gundert, vice president of threat intel at security firm Recorded Future.
Gundert previously worked for the U.S. Secret Service, and has also observed the important role that personal relationships play in international law enforcement efforts.
"You'd go to a conference, sit down with officials from other countries, drink some vodka, eat some cold cuts, and form these relationships of trust," he said. "And that's how some of the bigger cybercriminal cases happened. It may not be through official channels, but there's a lot of cooperation that happens to get cases done."
Even when, say, Russia is unwilling to extradite a cybercriminal, good relationships with other countries can help.
"There have been lots of high-profile cases of extradition from the Maldives and France and other countries where Russians tend to vacation," he said. "That's been very successful. When you can hamper these peoples' ability to travel, it affects them."
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