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Cisco inadvertently weakens password encryption in its IOS operating system

Lucian Constantin | March 21, 2013
The password encryption scheme used in newer Cisco IOS versions is weak, researchers find.

According to a Cisco IOS command reference manual found on the company's website, support for Type 4 encryption was first added to the "enable secret" command in Cisco IOS 15.0(1)S, 15.1(4)M and in Cisco IOS XE Release 3.1S.

Cisco included information on how to determine if a device uses Type 4 passwords and how to replace them with Type 5 passwords. However, while Type 5 passwords can be used on devices that support Type 4 passwords, they can't be generated on such devices.

"A Cisco IOS or Cisco IOS XE release with support for Type 4 passwords does not allow the generation of a Type 5 password from a plaintext password on the device itself," Cisco said. "Customers who need to replace a Type 4 password with a Type 5 password must generate the Type 5 password outside the device and then copy the Type 5 password to the device configuration."

Furthermore, backward compatibility issues might appear when downgrading from a device with Type 4 passwords configured to a device that doesn't support Type 4 passwords, Cisco said. "Depending on the specific device configuration, the administrator may not be able to log in to the device or to change into privileged EXEC mode, requiring a password recovery process to be performed."

Going forward, the Type 4 algorithm will be deprecated in favor of a new algorithm based on the correct design originally intended for Type 4, the company said. Until the new algorithm is put in place, the "enable secret" and "username" commands will revert back to their original behavior of generating Type 5 password hashes. Also, a warning displayed to users users of Cisco IOS devices about the deprecation of Type 5 passwords will be removed and these passwords will continue to be supported for backward compatibility reasons.

Schmidt and Steube contacted Cisco immediately after discovering the issue, which they describe as a "disastrous error," and followed the company's responsible disclosure policies. "Fortunately, the type 4 implementation was not yet present on all hardware devices and all IOS (XE) versions. Nevertheless, such an 'implementation mistake,' as Cisco calls it, should have never happened and the code should have never left the Cisco lab."

While investigating this issue the researchers found hundreds of Type 4 password hashes using Google search that had been leaked online by users who posted their Cisco device log files or terminal captures on various websites. Only around 10 of those hashes were generated from passwords that were complex enough for the hashes to be considered somewhat secure, the researchers said.

 

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