Wearable maker Apple didn't immediately respond to a request for comment on the report.
The authors of the study called for new privacy standards applied to big data information collection. Companies collecting health and other personal data should be more transparent about their collection and use of data, and the U.S. should consider a new data-protection authority to replace the country's fragmented privacy protections, the study's authors said.
"While we need to do everything possible to educate and empower consumers to take control of their personal data, we cannot expect individuals to bear the entire burden of managing their privacy ini the big-data era," the study says.
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