Mike Bracken could be forgiven for feeling frustrated. It's almost four years since he joined government as its reforming digital director, yet many Whitehall agencies seem to be only just starting to enter the internet era.
The Government Digital Service (GDS) was set up in 2011 with an ambitious to-do list including bringing government services online, improving citizens' digital skills and reducing IT spending across Whitehall.
However since then GDS' work "has been too often remedial" and piecemeal, focused on gradually redesigning services and improving internal technology rather than engaging in fully-fledged transformation, Bracken (pictured) admits.
"We [the civil service] should have been doing that for the last 15 years," he says.
Instead, the policy over recent decades was to outsource IT, and thus skills, to a handful of suppliers. The unintended result: bespoke, expensive, fragmented systems across Whitehall. It's a legacy GDS is trying - with resistance from some quarters- to reverse.
However Bracken's ongoing battle against departments' inertia and exceptionalism seems to have made him more, not less, determined to succeed.
"We have a one-time chance to change this country's government, in terms of making it fit for purpose in a digital age. It's too horrible to think of the consequences if we don't," he says.
The problem, according to Bracken, is that some organisations are stuck in a 'state of learnt helplessness'.
He elaborated in a blog post: "After decades of outsourcing, they're stuck with technology they can't change. Even when they know exactly what sort of digital transformation they want to bring about, they don't know how to start."
Bracken doesn't blame legacy technology for the lack of progress, as "all technology is interim".
He concedes most departments are running on old systems that are getting increasingly expensive to maintain. They are "just not fit for purpose for what we now want to do," he says.
Instead he blames a slow-moving culture in the civil service where difficult decisions have been repeatedly delayed.
"In many cases the cost of starting again and doing it properly is now far less than the cost of maintaining and continuing to develop itI suspect like many industries, it's always easier to put off until tomorrow isn't it. But we don't have any choice anymore," Bracken says.
GDS here to do something 'big and meaningful'
What is the role of GDS in wider transformation? Bracken describes the agency as "rule-setters": creating standards like the digital service manual and data standard, setting up reusable platforms and helping departments design services, write strategies and appoint staff.
However it's clear he wants GDS' role to be viewed as more strategic and long-term.
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