RSA executive chairman Art Coviello has revealed that two groups, operating on behalf of a single nation state, are thought to be behind the major attack on its SecurID system in March.
RSA has worked with the FBI, the US Department of Homeland Security, UK law enforcement and other agencies to investigate the problem.
Coviello, speaking at the RSA Security Conference in London today, declined to identify the groups involved, but said the sophistication of the intrusion was the reason for the company's decision that nation-states were to blame.
Six weeks after EMC's RSA security division saw its SecurID system hit by hackers, RSA president Tom Heiser met with the CIO of a large global medical device company. SecurID, an authentication system used by 40 million people in at least 30,000 organisations worldwide to securely access IT systems, had been compromised.
"The CIO was very upset," Heiser said. "It wasn't a pleasant conversation, I can assure you that."
The company was one of hundreds that RSA directly reached out to following the attack, which prompted questions about how safe it was to still use SecurID. Many corporate users have a SecurID device, which displays a temporary one-time passcode that allows them access to an IT system.
On Tuesday at RSA's security conference in London, Heiser revealed more details than have so far been known about of the attack, which RSA insists did not undermine the integrity of the entire system.
Heiser said both groups had been known to authorities before, although they were not known to work together.
"What does this tell us?" Heiser asked. "Our adversary was determined, persistent and very well coordinated. They knew what to look for and where to go."
RSA spotted the attack as it was underway using technology from NetWitness, a company it acquired in April, Heiser said. It is now believed that hackers gained access to RSA's systems by sending certain employees in EMC's human resources department an Excel spreadsheet that was rigged to exploit an Adobe Flash vulnerability, although RSA has not confirmed this.
Additionally, the hackers had knowledge about RSA's internal naming conventions used for hosts on its network as well as Active Directory -- a Microsoft product used for managing authentication of users on corporate networks -- which made their movements inside the system appear to be more legitimate.
"User names could match workstation names, which could make them a little more difficult to detect if you are not paying attention," said Eddie Schwartz, RSA's chief security officer.
Heiser said the attacks were sophisticated: they used advanced techniques to connect to RSA's systems and used different malware, some of which was compiled just hours before an attack. The information stolen was compressed and encrypted before it was exfiltrated, making it more difficult to identify.
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