Other 3D printing technologies include selective laser sintering (SLS) and stereolithography. SLS uses lasers to melt successive layers of powdered polymers; as each layer is melted into a pattern, more powder is applied over it and melted. Stereolithography is a technology that uses lasers to harden a photocurable resin. A mechanical positioning system directs a laser onto a tray of liquid resin and traces out each layer of an object.
Consumer-grade 3D printers typically use one of two kinds of thermoplastic filament to build the final product: acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polylactic acid (PLA). PLA is derived from sugar and tends to have a more pleasant smell than ABS, which gives off a "plastic" smell. (I didn't find the smell of ABS to be unpleasant, but then again, I like the smell of gasoline too.)
While some printers can work with both types of filament, some only work with one. Afinia's printer, for example, only uses ABS.
The plastic filament is 1.75 millimeters wide and comes in 15 colors (my test system came with white). A single 2.2-lb. spool costs about $32 and will typically print dozens of objects. The exact number it will print depends, of course, on the size of the objects.
All printers include a base plate to which the heated, extruded plastic adheres. Some, like the one I used, have heated platforms, which keeps the plastic warm during the printing process, ensuring that the plastic doesn't warp or roll up at the edges, as can happen if it cools unevenly.
Many 3D printers use a "perf" or perforated board that is attached to the printer platform with clips before beginning a job. The many tiny holes in a perf board allow the thermoplastic to adhere firmly to the platform during printing. Once a print job is completed, the perf board, with the finished model on it, can be easily removed from the printer; the model can then be separated from the perf board.
Afinia supplies three perf boards with its printer. The boards only last so long, as the holes eventually fill with excess polymer. Afinia sells perf boards for $24 each. But you can find them significantly cheaper at retail outlets such as Newegg.com.
Software and setup
The initial unboxing and setup took me less than 20 minutes. The printer ships mostly assembled. You need only remove a few clips that hold the robotic mechanisms in place, attach the spool of polymer filament, and you're ready to begin learning how to 3D print.
One resource that I loved with this particular printer was the video instructions that came along with the operating system on the provided DVD. An instruction booklet is one thing, but having a video explaining the process of calibrating the printer and loading a CAD image makes it idiot proof. There are four instructional videos, which go from setup to printing.
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