5. Deselect all except “Debugging Tools for Windows”.
What are symbols and why you need them
With WinDbg installed – but before calling up a dump file – you need symbol table files. Symbol files for software are like exit signs on the highway; they tell you what is located if you stop there. They are a byproduct of compiling source code into an executable file (from a high-level language into machine code). During this process, the compiler creates symbol files with a list of identifiers, their locations in the program and their attributes.
However, programs do not need this information to execute, so symbols are typically stored in a separate file. This reduces the size of the executable resulting in the use of less disk space and faster load and operating speeds. Further, those symbol files are not normally shipped with the OS or the application they come from. The problem, then, is that when a program causes a problem resulting in a system failure, the OS only knows the hex address at which the problem occurred, but not who was there and what he was doing. Fortunately, Microsoft provides access to SymServ, which resolves the problem.
When opening a memory dump, WinDbg looks at the executable files (.exe, .dll, etc.) and extracts version information. It then creates a request to SymServ at Microsoft that includes version information and locates the precise symbol tables to draw information from. As mentioned earlier, it will not download all symbols for the specific operating system you are troubleshooting; it will download only what it needs.
In this case, for this Windows 10 PC, the symbol file folder ended up being 22MB in size. After running numerous crash tests, the folder was about 35MB. On another system upon which I ran numerous tests from several different PCs, the folder was still under 100MB. Just remember that if you open files from additional machines (with variants of the operating system) your folder can continue to grow in size.
Alternatively, you can opt to download and store the complete symbol file from Microsoft. Before you do, note that – for each symbol package – you should have at least 1GB of disk space free. This is because, in addition to space needed to store the files, you also need space for the required temporary files. Even with the low cost of hard drives these days, the space used is worth noting.
- Each x86 symbol package may require 750 MB or more of hard disk space.
- Each x64 symbol package may require 640 MB or more.
Symbol packages are non-cumulative unless otherwise noted, so if you are using an SP2 Windows release, you will need to install the symbols for the original RTM version and for SP1 before you install the symbols for SP2.
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