Almost anything can be ordered online and accessed immediately or delivered to your doorstep. Having an item shipped monthly, without the hassle of going online and pulling out one’s credit card over and over, is an even better idea. The automatic subscription renewal business model offers customers a convenient and easy way to shop and promotes brand loyalty.
However, amid increasing consumer litigation targeting companies that have adopted the automatic renewal model, companies do well to carefully vet their subscription renewal policies. At least 22 states, including California, have enacted an automatic-renewal law (ARL). Since late 2013, two Southern California plaintiffs’ lawyers have systematically targeted a slew of technology and other companies with subscription-based services under a 2010 California statute (Cal. Bus. & Prof. Code § 17600 et seq.) that prohibits automatic renewal charges without affirmative consent. The suits seek restitution for unauthorized charges, some as low as $1.99 per customer. Plaintiffs’ lawyers claim that under the ARL, retailers must provide restitution to the consumer for 100% of gross revenues received pursuant to the automatic renewal, even if the consumer actually wanted or anticipated the renewal. Though most cases are still in early stages or have been driven into arbitration, this new brand of litigation could become more than a nuisance if it succeeds on a class-wide basis.
‘Automatic renewal’ class actions
The first ARL class action in California was filed in November 2013 against Spotify. The plaintiff had agreed to be bound by Spotify’s terms and conditions of use, however, which contained an arbitration provision and class-action waiver requiring her to arbitrate her claims against the company on an individual basis. The action was dismissed in July 2014 after the court granted Spotify’s motion to compel arbitration. Spotify was followed by class actions filed against Dropbox in February 2014 and Hulu in March 2014. Dropbox was dismissed pursuant to stipulation in June 2014, and a motion to compel arbitration in Hulu disposed with that case as well.
In 2015, more than a dozen “auto-renewal” class actions were filed in California against technology and Web-based companies. LifeLock, for example, reached a settlement agreement with plaintiffs, which was approved in July 2015. And already in 2016, several additional online merchants are facing class-action complaints. In each case, plaintiffs seek to certify classes of California consumers who purchased goods or services as part of an automatic renewal plan or continuous service offer and assert claims under the ARL, as well as other California consumer protection statutes, including the Unfair Competition Law (Bus. & Prof. Code §§ 17200, et seq.) and Consumer Legal Remedies Act (California Civil Code §§ 1750, et seq.), and seek recovery of damages and restitution, injunctive relief, attorneys’ fees and costs.
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