# Doing math with awk

I use awk all the time, but generally only to conveniently pull a particular field out of data that I'm workin with. Regardless of the separator used, awk makes it easy to extract just what you need. But there's a lot more to the language than this obvious feature. One of the services that awk can provide is the ability to do a range of mathematical calculations -- like cosines and square roots -- more easily than you might imagine.

First, try this. You can print the whole number part of a number (i.e., not rounding it up), by doing something like this:

$ awk 'BEGIN{ > print int(12.789); > }' 12

Obviously, you're not going to fall of your seat if you do this on the command line, but this same logic can come in very handy when you're writing a script.

You can print the logarithm of a number just as easily.

$ awk 'BEGIN{ > print log(111) > }' 4.70953

And how about printing the square root of a number?

$ awk 'BEGIN{ > print sqrt(25) > }' 5

You can also build awk scripts to perform the calculations on a file full of numbers as easily as doing a calculation on one.

For integers:

{ print int($1); }

that script will print the integer portion of the numbers at the beginning of every line in a file.

For square roots:

{ print sqrt($1); }

And, if the number aren't the first thing on each line, change $1 to $2 or $3, etc.

Running our scripts after looking at the numbers file:

$ cat numbers 12.345 54.321 4 25 $ $ awk -f getInt numbers 12 54 4 25 $ awk -f getSqRt numbers 3.51355 7.37028 2 5

And, if the separators aren't some form of white space, specify your field separator in a BEGIN statement as shown below:

$ cat getSqRt2 BEGIN {FS=":"} { print sqrt($2); } $

In the lines below, we are running the script shown above on a file of numbers in which the number is the second field and the fields are separated with colons.

First, the numbers

$ cat nums top:12.345 bottom:54.321 right:4 left:25

Then the results:

$ awk -f getSqRt2 nums 3.51355 7.37028 2 5

The mathematical functions available in awk include:

- int(x) -- the nearest integer to x
- sqrt(x) -- the positive square root of x
- exp(x) -- the exponential of x (e ^ x) or an error if x is out of range
- log(x) -- the natural logarithm of x (as long as x is positive)
- sin(x) -- the sine of x
- cos(x) -- the cosine of x
- atan2(y, x) -- the arctangent of y / x
- rand() -- a random number -- always between zero and one
- srand(x) -- set the starting point for random numbers

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