IT may not have to move to the cloud to get subscription- or usage-based pricing, but Costa says she doesn't think those models are always fully baked.
And not all enterprise software vendors have a mature software licensing model to accommodate organizations that host infrastructure in a private cloud rather than a traditional on-premises setup -- "especially when you need to have flexibility to hit peaks and valleys," she says.
Users should assess the maturity and scalability of cloud-based systems before moving to subscription-based SaaS offerings. For example, even though Scholastic has embraced the SaaS model for some enterprise applications, Costa isn't sure that core financial tools would be a good fit for the cloud right now. But her view could change as the cloud matures, she adds.
With regard to maintenance, Scholastic has frozen its implementation of JD Edwards accounting software and outsourced maintenance to Rimini Street. It's investigating a move to the Oracle E-Business Suite. But because that option is so costly, Costa says, Scholastic also plans to investigate other alternatives, including SaaS-based ERP systems such as NetSuite.
Mix and Match
Traditional software vendors are also experimenting with subscription and usage-based models for on-premises products, while some cloud vendors are offering a perpetual license-plus-maintenance model for their SaaS wares. Pershing LLC, for example, has a usage-based "on demand" licensing model for the IBM enterprise applications and hardware running in its data center. The license "starts with the hardware itself. Then the software licensing depends on hardware you run on," says managing director and CIO Ramaswamy Nagappan.
At Scholastic, director of network service Arun Abraham decided to use mobile device management (MDM) software vendor AirWatch's cloud-based service -- but he signed up for a two-year perpetual license plus maintenance rather than opting for a subscription. "We got a very reasonable price," he says.
As SaaS options mature, organizations should start to rethink their core ERP strategies and prepare for changes, Scavo says. For now, he thinks the best approach is what many large organizations are already doing: Retain core financial systems, but "wall them off" rather than expand them into other parts of the business. "That opens the door to considering vendors that may be more forward-looking, more agile and perhaps more cost-effective," he says.
Measuring the consumption of services is another challenge. With SaaS, Steinour says, software costs change from a per-seat charge to how many people are using the service at any given time. "But how do I monitor that in the cloud internally?" he asks.
IT also needs to invest in tools that can validate the accuracy of vendor invoices, including information such as who logged in, when and for how long, Adams says. And IT needs to be able to forecast demand to better manage licensing costs, whether in the context of a traditional software license or a subscription service.
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