Digital services wrapped around a physical product are another example and can range from one extreme such as the industrial Internet to another such as home automation technologies or personal fitness products. In addition, the long-term revenue stream from the digital services may be worth far more than the one time sale of the physical product.
The threat of substitutes is high in many industries since switching costs are low and buyer propensity to substitute is high. In the taxi services example, customers can easily switch from traditional models to the new model simply by installing an app on their smartphone. Propensity to switch from the traditional model is high due to consumer wait times for taxis, lack of visibility into taxi location and so on.
The bargaining power of buyers
Perhaps the strongest of the five forces impacting industry competition is the bargaining power of buyers since the biggest driver of digital business comes from the needs and expectations of consumers and customers themselves.
This bargaining power lays out a new set of expectations for the digital customer experience and necessitates continual corporate innovation across business models, processes, operations, products and services.
Customers and consumers have amassed far more bargaining power today due to instant access to information, insights from social media including access to reviews and feedback, low switching costs via digital channels, price sensitivity, access to substitute products and services with greater ease of use and convenience, as well as increased industry competitiveness as a result of the other forces.
The bargaining power of suppliers
Suppliers can accelerate or slow down the adoption of a digitally based business model based upon how it impacts their own situation. Those pursuing digital models themselves, such as the use of APIs to streamline their ability to form new partnerships and manage existing ones, may help accelerate your own model.
Those who are suppliers to the traditional models, and who question or are still determining their new role in the digital equivalent, may use their bargaining power to slow down or dispute the validity or legality of the new model.
Good examples are the legal and business issues surfacing around the digital-sharing economy (i.e. ride-sharing, room-sharing etc.) where suppliers and other constituents work to ensure the business model and process innovations still adhere to established rules, regulations, privacy, security and safety. This is a positive and needed development since, coupled with bargaining power of buyers, it can help to keep new models “honest” in terms of how they operate.
The rivalry among the existing competitors
Finally, existing competitors are all looking at digital business, trying to understand the disruptions occurring, and prepare their response. The responses can range all the way from defensive to offensive measures, and even a first-mover attack. This rivalry among competitors is always in play, but in recent years digital business has added fuel to the fire, just as the e-business era did many years ago.
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